Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The HIstory of Slavery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The HIstory of Slavery - Essay Example From this paper it is clear that its legacy continues to be a matter of dispute among scholars and the basis for contemporary debates about public policy. This is because slavery is considered the classic expression of American racism, and its effects are still perceived as the roots of the problems faced by blacks in the United States. Slavery seems to be the wound that never healed that has become the moral core of the oppression story so fundamental to the identity of blacks today. It is not surprising that the bitterness generated by recollections of slavery has turned a generation of black scholars and activists against the nation's Founding which in turn is against identification with America itself.This study discusses that  in America, although there were many among them who shared prevailing prejudices against blacks, the abolitionist movement contained the first antiracists. Prominent abolitionists agreed that blacks were civilizationally inferior and incapable of ruling themselves. But they agreed that black inferiority is no justification for slavery; rather, it is the product of slavery itself. Some abolitionists propagated the idea of helping blacks to resettle in Africa, but those who recognized the implausibility of such schemes opined that blacks were capable of living as free people.  In order to directly rebut the Southern argument that blacks were better off being ruled by a â€Å"superior† race, abolitionists began an inconspicuous quest for intelligent blacks. who would be standing refutations of theories of intrinsic inferiority. Although the issue of diminishing manpower arose along with anti-slavery campaigns, yet at one point, some 400,000 Britons were refusing to eat slave-grown sugar. There were antislavery committees in practically every town in the British Isles. In 1792, 390,000 people signed protest petitions to Parliament on the subject. And the House of Commons unanimously voted to abolish the slave trade. Unfortunately, The House of Lords refused, and British slave ships continued to cross the Atlantic. Nevertheless, a great movement was under way, and ultimately with the powerful help of huge slave rebellions in the West Indies, slavery came to a stop in the British Empire a full quarter century before it did in the United States. The British antislavery movement not only initiated with astounding suddenness, it pioneered virtually every major technique of political organization used even to this date like consumer boycott, answer a direct mail appeal, put up a political poster, paste the logo of an environmental group on transport vehicles, or join a national lobbying

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Impact of mass communications and mass media within modern culture

Impact of mass communications and mass media within modern culture The culture is very diverse. It is quite evident that due to the dramatic development of mass communications and mass media the modern culture impacts on many national cultures around the world. Every society is a legacy of the institutes. These institutes are kind of a collection of habits and customs. Without culture, the real freedom is impossible. Many researchers are certain that modern challenges require a resolute approach to the problems, and that chief problems appear in the area of culture and their solution is in the development of culture. All nations that are cultured in a traditional sense have their folklore, their own cultural identity elaborated by many generations. Thor Hansen claimed: Culture is something that evolves out of the simple, enduring elements of everyday life; elements most truthfully expressed in the folk arts and crafts of a nation. We make history; but we are also made by our history. Individuals and societies constantly move in history and use it as a reservoir of experience, allegiance and ideals that craft identities and outlooks. The patina of history ages the present. But more important: when today is steeped in a vision of the past it becomes a means to envision and shapes a trajectory into the future. History is never a dead letter, even if we fail to learn its lessons, or refuse anything except reliving its mistakes. (Sardar, 2002, p.11) Tradition, heritage, modernism all contested terms. But no less contested are the very words art and history, the one leading away from, the other towards, a time-based judgement of the ethical outcomes of creative practice. But it is precisely when the terms are held in dialectical conflict that they function together to produce illuminations not just of the past, not just of the present, but of the processes of change in which we all humanity now alive must take our places. (Sardar, 2002, p.14) The aim of the present work is to found such phenomena as modernism, postmodernism and contemporary art as cultural reference points. In connection with this aim, the following tasks can be set: to look at the history of these movements; to relate the art movements under concern with social developments. Cultural situation of the end of XIX first half of XX centuries developed under the sign of modernism. Fauvism, impressionism, cubism, futurism, abstractionism, Dadaism, surrealism are not nearly the full list of modernistic art movements. Modern (fr. Moderne means newest, modern, Art Nouveau, Jugendstil) European and American art style of the end of XIX early XX centuries. Modernism is variously argued to be a period, style, genre or combination of the above; but it is first of all word, one that exists, alongside cognate words. Its stem, modern-, is a term that, from the latin modo, means current, and so has a far wider currency and range of meanings than modernism. (Childs, 2008, p. 12-13) The new style spread all over Europe and first influenced architecture and decorative art. Modern representatives used new technical and structural facilities, open-plans, unique architectural decor in order to create extraordinary, deeply individualized buildings. Plastic and fluent lines, floral patterns are typical for modern. Modern architecture,  new architectural style that emerged in many Western countries in the decade after World War I. It was based on the rational use of modern materials, the  principles  of functionalist planning, and the rejection of historical precedent and ornament. This style has been generally designated as modern, although the labels International style,  Neue Sachlichkeit,  and functionalism have also been used. (Answers.com) Speaking about modern in the broad sense the term avant-gardism may also be used. In other words the art movements mentioned above can be named either modernist or avant-garde ones. Avant-Garde the term was first applied to artists in the nineteenth century to indicate those whose work seemed to be at the forefront of new developments in art as opposed to artists who hitched their artistic fortunes to Academic conformity and as such its linguistic fortunes have paralleled Modernism (although theorists such as Peter Burger prefer to see the two as separate). Some critics have argued that with the demise of Modernism and the inception of Post Modernism, avant-gardes too have disappeared. (Investigating Modern Art, 1996, p. 173) Considering the above mentioned material we can state that avant-gardism is connected with the retreat of culture from realism and declaration of art independence from reality. Creation of new and unique style and language in art. Let us go into particulars of art movements of modernism. Impressionists were against conventionalities of classicism, romanticism and academism, they insisted on the beauty of day-to-day life, simple democratic motives, strove for true-to-life honesty of picture, tried to catch the impression got from what an eye sees at the particular moment. The landscape is considered the most typical theme of impressionists. (Britt, 1990, p. 11) Cubism signified total rupture of connection with real image of the nature, which had been predominating in European painting since Renaissance. The aim of Picasso and Braque was to construct three-dimension form on the plane, its partitioning into geometric elements. Both painters were inclined to simple tangible forms, uncomplicated themes, what was especially typical of early cubism. (Britt, 1990, p. 159-161) Dadaists didnt develop their own original style. They lurched from one extreme to another, tried by any means (including provocative behavior) to shock self-complacent middlebrow. Cross-cutting, collage and ready-made (ordinary items presented as a work of art) were favorite Dadaism genres. Dadaism became popular very fast (especially in New York, where Marcel Duchamp was its leader), but the formed movement existed for a small period of time only. (Britt, 1990, p.203-210) It influenced much to other movements, in particular to surrealism (in its devotion to absurd and fantastic), abstract expressionism and conceptual art. Freuds theory of the unconscious and his method of free associations as a way to pass from consciousness to the unconscious are the source of Surrealism. However, the forms of these ideas expression were quite different among surrealists. For instance, Dali drew his illogical paintings, resembling nightmares, with religious exactitude, likelihood enhancing impression of hallucination or delusion. Mark Ernst, in his turn, worked out his paintings nearly automatically, turned off his mentality, preferring arbitrary characters, which often transferred into abstraction. Though Joan Miro is distinguished from other surrealistic painters by variety and cheerfulness of paintings. (Britt, 1990, p. 226-245) If we aggregate all historic facts and description of modernism in art, it is possible to assert that the feature of this movement is harmonious combination of very different things, and it constitutes its attractiveness and uniqueness. The age of modernism needed painters with universal talents. Postmodernism literally means something after modernism, or the contemporary times. The genealogy of the term postmodernism dates back to 1917. It was first used by the German philosopher Rudolf Pannwitz in his work Crisis of European Culture. He was talking about a new person, called to overcome the decline. It was just a paraphrase of the Nietzsches idea of a superman. (Cahoone, 2003, p.2) If we disregard further uses of the term, the next stage, leading directly to modern disputes, was a literary discussion of the sixties in the USA. (Ward, 1997, p. 8-9) Initially, postmodernism denoted the crisis of avant-garde literature in it. However, later the term acquired a positive meaning denoting hopes to overcome the crisis, in particular, the gap between elite and mass culture. This term is used more and more often to characterize innovations in literature and art, and also transformations in the social and economic, technological and social and political sphere. (Ward, 1997, p. 4-7) Postmodernism receives the status of a notion in 80s first of all thanks to the works of Lyotard who spread the discussion of postmodernism to the sphere of philosophy. (Ward, 1997, p. 169-170) In the culture of postmodernism there is a trend called neo-expressionism. This is a trend in the art of certain artists in the USA and Europe, especially Germany, which appeared at the end of 1970s. The artists turned again to the expressive means of Expressionism, every time creating a very individual style, often charged with aggression and nervous twist. (Heartney, 2001, p. 13-18) In the postmodernism epoch there were such interesting terms as postmodernist feminism. From the mid 80s, the increasing number of feminists who studied the implications of postmodernism for the benefit of feminism discussed the problem of their common foundation and even described their own theories as postmodernist ones. According to Linda Nicholson, if feminism continues this movement towards a more historical, non-universal, non-essentialist theory, the one that acknowledges differences between women, then feminism will become postmodernism in its essence. However, this movement also means that feminism should reject universal statements concerning the gender, patriarchate and concerning women or a woman. For many feminists it means rejecting too much. (Heartney, 2001, p. 51-54) In the seventies, new trends appeared in the architecture. There is even an exact date July 15, 1972. On this day a block of new comfortable houses was blown up in the city of Saint Louis. (Introducing Postmodernism, 2004, p. 115) I think that postmodernism serves as assimilation of the experience of artistic avant-garde. However, unlike avant-garde, postmodernism fully erases the border between formerly independent spheres of spiritual culture and levels of consciousness between scientific and ordinary consciousness, high art and kitsch. The postmodernist attitude to culture appears as a result of violating the purity of such a phenomenon as art. Postmodernism consciously moves away from creating original works to collage. And the strategy of postmodernism does not consist in assertion of destruction versus creation.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Planning a Karaoke Party :: Process Essays

You're sitting at home planning a party. You've got your list of invitees down. A cupboard full of chips and dips, and a cooler full of beer. You go to your computer and start putting together some mix Cd's of your favorite music. As you gather the songs you notice yourself singing along with one, and your eyes widen, lit up as you a struck with an idea. "I should have Karaoke at my party!" Brilliant! What could be more fun that a Karaoke party? The answer: a lot of things, if you're not careful! While Karaoke is a pass time enjoyed by people of every age, race and gender, it's also something you have to be in the mood for. So what happens if people show up to your party and aren't in the mood for Karaoke? Get them in the mood. There are three basic steps to throwing an amazing Karaoke party, and it all starts with invitations. Step 1: Inviting your guests With any luck, everyone at your party will have a blast, but do you know who won't? The people who don't show up! Karaoke is always fun with a good sized crowd, but if you aren't careful, you may loose half of your guests. It's all about how you present your invitation. There are two different types of people you will be inviting to the party; people who love karaoke, and people who like karaoke. The difference is this... People who LOVE karaoke - Make sure they know this is a karaoke party! This will be the smaller of the two types, but they are also the most important. They will go out of their way to attend, and you will need them during the party. People who LIKE karaoke - The easiest way to help ensure they will come is to avoid mentioning karaoke, and just tell them you are having a party. Why? While it is true that they enjoy karaoke, if they realize your party will focus around this activity, come party day they may think, "I'm not really in the mood." With people who just like karaoke, this can often be the case, and the number of people attending can make or break a party. Step 2: The supplies First and foremost is the karaoke machine. RENT ONE! Unless you own a professional karaoke machine, you should get one. This might seem a little expensive, if you buy yourself a cheap one and then try to supply yourself with a good selection of music, you'll end up spending a lot more, and getting a lot less.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Post high school plan Essay

You’ve just arrived at your office, which you share with a colleague, and it looks as if it’s going to be another frustrating day. Your side of the office is neat as a pin and incredibly well organized. You always arrive at work on time and you take care not to talk loudly when you’re on the phone, so that you don’t disturb your office mate.  Your colleague, however, is the exact opposite. Empty cups and stacks of dusty files litter his side of the office. He often rushes into the office late, and he sometimes puts the radio on while he’s working, which breaks your concentration. You love your work, but dread coming into the office every day, simply because you don’t like sharing your space with your colleague. He drives you crazy, and you often argue. If you thought about it, you’d quickly recognize that there’s conflict between you because the two of you have completely different working styles. Once you’d realized this, you’d have a starting point for thinking about how you could work together more effectively. All of us experience conflict like this at work. Conflict can be useful, since it can push conflicting parties to grow and communicate, and it can improve conflicting ideas. However, this can only happen if we understand why the conflict is there in the first place. Once we’ve identified the root of the problem, we can take the right steps to resolve it. In this article, we’ll look at eight common causes of conflict in the workplace, and we’ll explore how you can use them to manage conflict more effectively. About the Eight Causes According to psychologists Art Bell and Brett Hart, there are eight common causes of conflict in the workplace. Bell and Hart identified these common causes in separate articles on workplace conflict in 2000 and 2002. The eight causes are: 1.Conflicting resources. 2.Conflicting styles. 3.Conflicting perceptions. 4.Conflicting goals. 5.Conflicting pressures. 6.Conflicting roles. 7.Different personal values. 8.Unpredictable policies. You can use this classification to identify possible causes of conflict. Once you’ve identified these, you can take steps to prevent conflict happening in the first place, or you can tailor your conflict resolution strategy to fit the situation. How to Use the Tool Let’s take a closer look at each of the eight causes of workplace conflict, and discuss what you can do to avoid and resolve each type. 1. Conflicting Resources We all need access to certain resources – whether these are office supplies, help from colleagues, or even a meeting room – to do our jobs well. When more than one person or group needs access to a particular resource, conflict can occur. If you or your people are in conflict over resources, use techniques such as Win-Win Negotiation or the Influence Model to reach a shared agreement. You can also help team members overcome this cause of conflict by making sure that they have everything they need to do their jobs well. Teach them how to prioritize their time and resources, as well as how to negotiate with one another to prevent this type of conflict. If people start battling for a resource, sit both parties down to discuss  openly why their needs are at odds. An open discussion about the problem can help each party see the other’s perspective and become more empathic about their needs. 2. Conflicting Styles Everyone works differently, according to his or her individual needs and personality. For instance, some people love the thrill of getting things done at the last minute, while others need the structure of strict deadlines to perform. However, when working styles clash, conflict can often occur. To prevent and manage this type of conflict in your team, consider people’s working styles and natural group roles when you build your team. You can also encourage people to take a personality test, such as the Myers-Briggs Personality Test . This can help them become more accepting of other people’s styles of working, and be more flexible as a result. 3. Conflicting Perceptions All of us see the world through our own lens, and differences in perceptions of events can cause conflict, particularly where one person knows something that the other person doesn’t know, but doesn’t realize this. If your team members regularly engage in â€Å"turf wars† or gossip, you might have a problem with conflicting perceptions. Additionally, negative performance reviews or customer complaints can also result from this type of conflict. Make an effort to eliminate this conflict by communicating openly with your team, even when you have to share bad news. The more information you share with your people, the less likely it is that they will come up with their own interpretations of events. Different perceptions are also a common cause of office politics. For instance, if you assign a project to one person that normally would be  someone else’s responsibility, you may unwittingly ignite a power struggle between the two. Learn how to navigate office politics , and coach your team to do the same. 4. Conflicting Goals Sometimes we have conflicting goals in our work. For instance, one of our managers might tell us that speed is most important goal with customers. Another manager might say that in-depth, high-quality service is the top priority. It’s sometimes quite difficult to reconcile the two! Whenever you set goals for your team members, make sure that those goals don’t conflict with other goals set for that person, or set for other people. And if your own goals are unclear or conflicting, speak with your boss and negotiate goals that work for everyone. 5. Conflicting Pressures We often have to depend on our colleagues to get our work done. However, what happens when you need a report from your colleague by noon, and he’s already preparing a different report for someone else by that same deadline? Conflicting pressures are similar to conflicting goals; the only difference is that conflicting pressures usually involve urgent tasks, while conflicting goals typically involve projects with longer timelines. If you suspect that people are experiencing conflict because of clashing short-term objectives, reschedule tasks and deadlines to relieve the pressure. 6. Conflicting Roles Sometimes we have to perform a task that’s outside our normal role or responsibilities. If this causes us to step into someone else’s â€Å"territory,† then conflict and power struggles can occur. The same can happen in reverse – sometimes we may feel that a particular task should be completed by someone else. Conflicting roles are similar to conflicting perceptions. After all, one team member may view a task as his or her responsibility or territory. But when someone else comes in to take over that task, conflict occurs. If you suspect that team members are experiencing conflict over their roles, explain why you’ve assigned tasks or projects to each person. Your explanation could go a long way toward remedying the pressure. You can also use a Team Charter to crystallize people’s roles and responsibilities, and to focus people on objectives. 7. Different Personal Values Imagine that your boss has just asked you to perform a task that conflicts with your ethical standards. Do you do as your boss asks, or do you refuse? If you refuse, will you lose your boss’s trust, or even your job? When our work conflicts with our personal values like this, conflict can quickly arise. To avoid this in your team, practice ethical leadership : try not to ask your team to do anything that clashes with their values, or with yours. There may be times when you’re asked to do things that clash with your personal ethics. Our article on preserving your integrity will help you to make the right choices. 8. Unpredictable Policies When rules and policies change at work and you don’t communicate that change clearly to your team, confusion and conflict can occur. In addition, if you fail to apply workplace policies consistently with members of your team, the disparity in treatment can also become a source of dissension. When rules and policies change, make sure that you communicate exactly what will be done differently and, more importantly, why the policy is changing. When people understand why the rules are there , they’re far more likely to accept the change. Once the rules are in place, strive to enforce them fairly and consistently. Tip: Although Bell and Hart’s Eight Causes of Conflict provide a useful framework for identifying common causes of conflict in the workplace, they don’t explore how to deal with conflict. So make sure that you know how to resolve conflict effectively, too. Key Points Psychologists Art Bell and Brett Hart identified eight causes of conflict in the early 2000s. The eight causes are: 1.Conflicting resources. 2.Conflicting styles. 3.Conflicting perceptions. 4.Conflicting goals. 5.Conflicting pressures. 6.Conflicting roles. 7.Different personal values. 8.Unpredictable policies.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Sociological Analysis Of Dr. Mayer s Article The...

As the title of article states, Dr. Mayer suggests that political ecology as a new coherent analytical framework over traditional perspective of political economy and cultural ecology in terms of understanding the conditions of disease. Furthermore, most broadly, the political ecological approach seeks to understand the unintended consequences of environmental decisions, and particularly those consequences that alter human–environment relations (Mayer, 2006. Appendix C). Dr. Mayer also notes in his article the integration of power into the understanding of disease dynamic has thus been neglected from several dimensions, and the article represents and attempt at developing a framework for such integration (Mayer, 1996. p. 443). Dr. Mayer mentions that the traditional approaches of medical geography comprise studies of health service delivery and studies of disease patterns (Mayer, 1990). He also states that environment is an important external factor that influence the function ing of local systems. However, he emphasizes that environment doesn t always mean some physical condition but it include also conditions that are created by economic and political interests as factors in development and increase of disease. In other words, political power would influence disease condition, and this is the exact point of using the political ecology approach. He argues that the use of political ecology of disease as a new approach for studying medical geography including theShow MoreRelatedContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 PagesMichael Bromwich is an exemplar of all that is good about the British tradition of academic accounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open to a wide variety of other ideas, recognizing their intellectual strengths and capabilities rather than making artificial distinctions between what is acceptable and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accountingRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesbuilt-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul SingaporeRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesdetermining beginnings and endings that accord with major shifts in political and socioeconomic circumstances and dynamics rather than standard but arbitrary chronological break points. In the decades that followed the Great War, the victorious European powers appeared to have restored, even expanded, their global political and economic preeminence only to see it eclipsed by the emergence of the Soviet and U.S. superpowers on their periphery and a second round of even more devastating global conflict.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Incarceration Of Minority Youth - 883 Words

The increasing rate of imprisoned minority adolescent youth and young males in the criminal justice system. For this reason there needs to be interventions available to this population to create a change in society. †¢ The changing number of adolescent and youth minority prisoners : The incarceration of minority youth is at a high as well as the cost for the imprisonment of them in their states, many of their offenses are non-violent. There is a need for initiatives to be created to reduce the numbers of imprisoned youths. Male youth of color are entering the criminal justice system in an increasing amount. This does not only change the life of their families, the communities they live in and the families of the crimes by the offender. It’s understandable that the at-risk adolescents are from poor communities, some or little to no education, no family support. We need to have an understanding of why our prisons are being populated a majority with juveniles minorities. In an article written by Glenn E. Martin- President and Founder of JustLeadershipUSA, he was incarcerated for nine years and then paroled and on probation supervision. His story which has been published in the Ebony magazine emphasizes that 60%of the prison system with high rates of minority juvenile incarceration. †¢ When and what cause this significant change occur in the criminal justice system? The influences that lead to this population becoming at risk individuals into the criminal justice system isShow MoreRelatedMarijuana Has Always Been A Concern In How It Should Be1625 Words   |  7 Pageswhether it be legal or illegal, if it harmful or not, and even if it is for the privileged or minorities. Marijuana brings different controversies and currently legalized in some states and not in others, but a major issue is the arrest/incarceration rates based on the ethnicity of those who use and are caught with marijuana. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Essay Womens Rights Prehistory till 1500Ce - 605 Words

How Women’s Roles in History are Different of Those Today Cassandra Dunseath HIS103: World Civilizations Rebekah Kennedy October 7, 2013 How Women’s Roles in History are Different of Those Today In the last three decades women’s roles in society have changed. We are now seen as more than just a pretty face that can cook, clean, and take care of our children. Throughout history, we have seen more and more of these â€Å"gender roles,† and also viewed differently in the past. Women played a major role in prehistory to 1500 CE. So, what roles did women play in society at that time? Were they treated or viewed differently or the same as men this this time? In this essay I will be trying to answer these†¦show more content†¦But still at this time men were viewed differently than women were viewed. In the Era of Confucius, 80 CE, women didn’t matter that much at all. However as I read in the article, Lessons for a woman, a women took it upon herself to create how she feels her and her daughters should be taught and what their customs are. The rules that she expects women to follow are somewhat practical. She states that women should be respectful and Put others before herself. A women should go to bed late but rise early to get her chores and daily duties done. It also states on how married men and women should act. It also states that a woman should have four qualifications, womanly virtue, womanly words, womanly bearing, and womanly work. It was important back then for a woman to be seen and not heard. Again women still had the rough life and were only viewed as mothers and house wives back in this time period. In the Mayan Empire women varied according to class. The wealthy women had slaves and other servants who met their every need. Poor women like farmer’s wives had to cook, care for their children weave or sew and help their husbands grow crops. The wealthier women did not have any political power. Also these women could be used as pawns in marriage to secure better diplomatic relations between cities or between families, as was done in other soci eties at the time (Mahdavi, F.